Nara (奈良), was the first permanent capital of Japan. As of today, there are a lot of temples and shrines in Nara. Many of the temples are in Nara park. In Nara park, you will encounter friendly deer begging for foods. There are special deer biscuits you can buy for 200 yen a bag to feed them. If you come in the right season (late winter and early spring), you will enjoy plum boom in the park.
Nara is about 1 hour train ride from either Kyoto or Osaka.